Competency-Based Training Implementation Constraints in Tanzania: Evidence of Trainers from Vocational Education and Training Centres, Morogoro Region

  • Mgaya Shukurani Tanzania Institute of Accountancy
  • Itika Josephat Mzumbe University, Tanzania
  • Emmanuel Ndikumana.D. Mzumbe University, Tanzania
Keywords: Trainers, competency-based training, vocational education and training institutions


The study where the article was originated examined on the constraints facing trainers’ in implementing competency-based and training (CBT) at vocational education and training (VET) based on human capital theory assumptions. CBT demand trainers to have pre-requisite competencies, industrial exposure, adequate training resources and continuous updating of their competencies for its effective implementation. Nevertheless, these demands are claimed to lack among trainers and led to CBT implementation challenges and have resulted to have the outcome of trainees who have acquired training certificates with inadequate competencies demanded for employability. A qualitative research design was used where semi-structured interviews were used to collect data from 22 trainers who were purposively selected out of 87 trainers from four selected vocational training institutions. Data were analysed through thematic and content analysis. The findings revealed that trainers were facing challenges in implementing CBT due to their knowledge-based training orientation, inadequate opportunities to industrial exposure and further competence updating. Therefore, it is suggested that there is a need for VETIs and trainers to increase opportunities for further training and industrial exposure to update trainers' competencies to meet CBT requirements. Also, industrial visits and collaboration in training are suggested to enhance trainers’ ability in implementing the CBT approach.

Author Biographies

Mgaya Shukurani, Tanzania Institute of Accountancy

Department of Management Studies

Itika Josephat, Mzumbe University, Tanzania

Department of Public Service and Human Resource Management

Emmanuel Ndikumana.D., Mzumbe University, Tanzania

Department of Public Service and Human Resource Management