Green Synthesized Iron Nanoparticles from Tetrapleura tetraptera for Fluoride Mitigation in Aqueous Media
The utilization of better remediation methods is required due to the growing concerns of environmental protection and sustainability. In this regard, the use of biosynthesized offers a viable path. This research describes the synthesis of stabilized iron nanoparticles using the fruit of Tetrapleura tetraptera as a source of extract. Due to the combination of different phytochemicals confirmed present in the extract through phytochemical screening, reduction and capping of Iron/iron oxide nanoparticles were produced. The change in colour of the extract solution from light brown to dark black verified the presence of iron oxide nanoparticles. X-Ray Diffraction analysis confirmed peaks of Iron/iron oxide nanoparticles and estimated particle size of 30 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) of both extract and Iron/iron oxide nanomaterial confirmed functional groups associated with the phytochemicals in the extract. The ultra-violet-Visible spectroscopy (UVVis) peak of 300 nm was observed which was within the range for iron nanoparticles. Fluoride removal studies show high removal efficiency of 94 % by the iron nanoparticles. kinetic and isotherm modeling undertaken shows that the adsorption occurred by chemisorption on multiple active sites. The results show the successful synthesis of Iron/iron oxide nanoparticles from Tetrapleura tetraptera extract and its effect on fluoride removal, therefore providing a sustainable water treatment design system.